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The antecedent two capacity declared the above action applications of backwoods accounts, demonstrating these applications with examples from a cardinal of countries. In this chapter, accepted guidelines for implementing backwoods accounts as a apparatus for cross-sectoral action are proposed in the anatomy of a accepted set of tables or worksheets that can be abounding out based on backwoods accounts. These worksheets appearance how to anniversary advantageous indicators and those genitalia of backwoods accounts acclimated with bread-and-butter models. While there are abounding indicators that can be produced from backwoods accounts, this affiliate will focus on the indicators that are advantageous for cross-sectoral action analysis. A added complete set of indicators is apparent in Appendix A, which shows the accord amid backwoods accounts and the Montreal Action set of C&I.

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Of course, the capacity of backwoods accounts—the blazon of NTFP and backwoods casework provided, the geographic disaggregation, domiciliary classifications, the allocation of forests, etc.—and the consistent worksheets will alter from country to country. It is not accessible to accommodate a worksheet for every accessible variation, but accessible modifications for anniversary worksheet will be noted. The worksheets are developed aboriginal for civic backwoods accounts, but best can be acclimated at both the civic and the bounded or bounded level. Anniversary worksheet indicates the breadth of the above-mentioned capacity breadth the appliance was discussed. Indicators are presented for anniversary of the above action issues articular in the antecedent chapters.

Constructing backwoods accounts is a awful abstruse undertaking, and the altercation beneath assumes acquaintance with them. Precise definitions, abstracts sources and bread-and-butter appraisal techniques are discussed in Allotment II of the manual.

Whether backwoods accounts are acclimated at the national akin to highlight the bread-and-butter accent of advance in acceptable forestry about to added sectors, or at the bounded akin for acreage use planning, it is advantageous to alpha with an overview of the bread-and-butter accent of forests in affiliation to added bread-and-butter activities as sources of assets and employment. In adverse to civic accounts, which generally accommodate abandoned bartering logging, backwoods accounts additionally accommodate non‑market products, including timber, NTFPs and backwoods services. As examples in Capacity 2 and 3 indicated, these non‑market appurtenances and casework may beat the bulk of bartering timber.

It is abnormally important to analyze the assurance of rural communities on forests for their livelihoods and the assurance of added sectors of the abridgement on backwoods services. These ethics authenticate to a broader, non-forestry constituency why they accept a pale in acceptable forestry. Table 4.1 summarizes the accounts for backwoods appurtenances and services; they are aggregated into three above categories for presentation here, but of advance would be disaggregated by blazon of artefact as apparent in antecedent capacity and declared in Allotment II. Both concrete and budgetary accounts are included.

Physical accounts are advantageous so that backwoods casework to added sectors may be accustomed (for example, by acreage area) alike if a reliable bread-and-butter bulk cannot be established. Also, forests may not arise economically significant, alike afterwards including all the ‘missing non-market values’, but forests may be actual important from a amusing or anatomy perspective, factors that additionally admission into the altercation about acceptable forestry. Concrete accounts may advice acknowledge this. For example, although the bread-and-butter bulk of firewood may be small, firewood may anniversary for a ample allotment of civic or bounded energy.

Many advantageous indicators may be acquired from this table, which may be acclimated by backwoods managers and added stakeholders to authenticate the accent of forests in the economy, to added sectors and for rural livelihoods. Some of these indicators are apparent in Table 4.2. The assay of backwoods accounts at this akin was discussed in breadth 2.2 The aboriginal set of indicators identifies the authentic bread-and-butter addition of forests to GDP, including appurtenances and casework generally underestimated or omitted.

The added set of indicators is accompanying to casework to non-forestry sectors. They appearance how abased added sectors are on forestry and what is acquired from advance in acceptable forestry. These indicators are acutely axial to compassionate cross-sectoral linkages. They additionally appearance the abeyant for the conception of markets for anatomy casework and added bread-and-butter instruments to advance acceptable forestry. The broadcast worksheet for these indicators is apparent in Table 4.3. The aboriginal allotment of this Table is the allotment of backwoods accounts that covers the use of backwoods casework in concrete units; the added allotment shows the budgetary accounts and some of the indicators that could be acquired to admeasurement assurance of non-forestry sectors on forests.

The third set of indicators apropos the appliance of forests by rural communities, an affair discussed in greater detail in the abutting section. These indicators are analytic for decision-makers because bread-and-butter ethics abandoned may not accommodate a acceptable admeasurement of the broader amusing bulk of forests, that is, the assurance of rural communities on forests. For example, although the bulk of NTFP acclimated by rural communities may be baby in affiliation to GDP, it may aggregate a ample allotment of domiciliary livelihoods. While abundant of the altercation of cross-sectoral linkages has focused on added bread-and-butter activities, the livelihoods of rural communities are additionally a analytic affair for backwoods management.

The final set of indicators shows the backwoods casework rendered to the all-around association in agreement of carbon accumulator and biodiversity protection. As with bounded backwoods services, these indicators additionally appearance the abeyant for the conception of markets for these services, such as carbon markets and added payments for biodiversity.

It is additionally advantageous to accommodate advice about the boilerplate domiciliary appliance of backwoods articles and to anniversary the allotment of absolute domiciliary burning that backwoods articles anniversary for (Table 4.4). Here, a acumen is fabricated amid the bulk collected, awash and purchased by a household. Added advice advantageous in a socio-economic appraisal of forests includes: which ancestors associates aural a domiciliary aggregate forest articles and how abundant time it takes to collect. This blazon of anniversary requires actual abundant surveys. In abounding countries, there is little advice about use of backwoods articles by altered households, so that abandoned a distinct set of data for the nation (or region) can be acquired about domiciliary assurance on forest products. There accept been case studies that differentiate households aural a region, such as Shackleton and Shackleton (2002), but no backwoods accounts have included this advice at this time.

The indicators could further analyze by added policy-relevant characteristics. For example, achievement for anniversary ambassador could analyze by the blazon of backwoods from which articles were extracted. Forests can be authentic by a cardinal of attributes, best frequently tree breed or ‘degree of naturalness’ (cultivated v accustomed forest). This can be advantageous in decisions affecting use of accustomed forests. It is additionally helpful for policy‑makers to accept a time series, for allegory of the indicators in Table 4.2 over time.

Distribution of backwoods appurtenances and casework is also advantageous for cross-sectoral action analysis, allowance to analyze who benefits from forests by region, calibration of operation and added features. As discussed in Capacity 3 and 4, there are several agency in which administration may be viewed: bounded distribution, calibration of action and ambit of the almsman from the forest. There is some overlap amid them and added ambit may also be useful. All-embracing comparisons of backwoods ethics may differentiate countries by their date of development. For bounded or bounded backwoods accounts, it may be advantageous to differentiate the domiciliary use of backwoods appurtenances and casework by domiciliary assets group.

Regional administration was declared in breadth 3.2.2 and an archetype apparent in Table 3.4 of backwoods values in Swaziland disaggregated by ecological zone. The indicators listed in Table 4.2 may be complete for anniversary arena or for an alone forest, accouterment a anniversary of the accent of forests aural a region. When accounts are aggregate for assorted regions, it is accessible to analyze the addition of forests amid regions (Table 4.5).

Regional accounts can also analyze the use of backwoods articles by non-forestry sectors, as in Table 4.3, and for altered households, as in Table 4.4. This will acknowledge in which regions non‑forestry industries and rural communities are best dependent on backwoods products. Although not apparent in Tables 4.3 or 4.4, allegory of boilerplate bounded achievement of non-market backwoods articles per hectare of forestland may additionally be a advantageous indicator.

Table 4.5:        Worksheet 3: Above indicators disaggregated by region




Region 1

Region 2

Region 3


 Economic addition of forests about to added sectors  of the economy

Indicators from Table 4.2

 Non-forestry sectors: bread-and-butter contribution of backwoods  services to non-forestry commercial sectors

 Rural livelihoods: bread-and-butter accent of backwoods to rural  communities

 Global benefits: Bread-and-butter accent of backwoods casework  to the all-around community

Scale of activity—the administration of allowances to commercial, artisanal and affluence users—is addition advantageous ambit to consider. Table 2.6 gave examples for Sweden and South Africa that acclaimed three categories of beneficiary: clandestine bartering operators (logging as able-bodied as added bartering activities like agriculture), households and assorted beneficiaries (including casework that anniversary several sectors, like watershed aegis and the all-around community). Added countries may ambition to accomplish added distinctions amid beneficiaries, depending on the institutions utilizing backwoods resources.

Finally, ambit of the almsman from the backwoods is addition adapted advantageous for cross‑sectoral action analysis. It is almost accessible to analyze the allowances to bounded users and to draw them into discussions about backwoods management. But the added the ambit amid the backwoods and the allowances from the forest, the added of a claiming it may be. As Table 3.7 showed, the allocation of allowances may alter from one country to another. For Spain, allowances could be allocated to local, bounded (recreation services; no bounded backwoods aegis casework were included in the accounts) and all-around beneficiaries. For Swaziland, a baby country, two types of bounded almsman were identified: affluence households and large, foreign-owned bartering companies. There were no bounded beneficiaries because bounded aegis casework were not estimated and around all tourism is foreign. All-around beneficiaries included all-around backwoods aegis casework added tourism. Table 4.6 shows a ambiguous adaptation of a worksheet that could be acclimated to adviser the administration of backwoods appurtenances and services.

Understanding the addition of forestry to acceptable bread-and-butter development, beheld from the macroeconomic perspective, is important, although conceivably not axial to the assay of cross‑sectoral action linkages, so it is dealt with abandoned briefly here. At the macroeconomic level, backwoods accounts accommodate indicators of absolute backwoods bulk and the bulk of backwoods burning such as those listed in Table 4.7. These indicators are discussed in detail in Allotment II.

Table 4.6:        Worksheet 4: Administration of backwoods appurtenances and casework amid local, bounded and all-around beneficiaries (as percent of absolute bulk of backwoods appurtenances and services)


Local beneficiaries

Regional beneficiaries

Global beneficiaries



Commercial-foreign owned


1.             Products of the forestry and logging industry






2. Non-timber backwoods products






3. Backwoods services






1 Agriculture, tourism and recreation, bartering fisheries, etc.

2 Amusement of bounded tourists and backwoods anatomy aegis casework to hydroelectric power, agriculture, borough baptize supply, fisheries, etc.

3 Backwoods anatomy aegis services: carbon accumulator and biodiversity protection


Table 4.7:        Macroeconomic indicators including backwoods values

 Conventional indicator  from civic accounts

 Proposed acclimation from  forest accounts

 Revised indicator

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 Omitted non-market backwoods  values

 GDP including abounding bulk of  forests

 Depreciation basic  stocks

 Depletion of accustomed forests1

 Total abrasion including  depletion of accustomed forests


 Depletion or abasement of  natural forests1

 NDP including accident of natural  forests

 National wealth

 Capitalized bulk of natural  forests

 Total civic abundance including  natural backwoods assets

 1Depletion of able forests is included in civic accounts. This affair is discussed added in Allotment II.

The indicators acquaint policy-makers, for example, how abased the civic abridgement is on forests, whether this assurance is accretion or the abridgement is acceptable added diverse, and the admeasurement to which bread-and-butter advance is acceptable or has been acquired by liquidating accustomed basic like forests. The indicators articular beforehand in this affiliate are based on backwoods breeze accounts, but these indicators additionally accomplish use of backwoods asset accounts.

Cost-benefit assay is the basic bread-and-butter apparatus used for assessing trade-offs amid aggressive uses; it is generally acclimated for activity or action appraisal at the bounded or bounded level. The archetype from Malaysia in Affiliate 2 showed how acreage use about-face and deforestation could aftereffect from a abridgement of advice about all the appurtenances and casework provided by forests to added sectors of the economy, as able-bodied as a abridgement of institutions or regulations to monetize these services, so that backwoods owners are compensated for the casework that forests provide.

Analysis of trade-offs requires assumptions about what will appear if backwoods administration objectives change. The starting point, an appraisal of the bulk of present uses of a forest, may be provided by backwoods accounts. Assay of another uses usually requires some advice about the appulse of a change in backwoods use on the adeptness of a backwoods to bear appurtenances and services. A change in logging, for example, could affect tourism, baptize affection (affecting abounding users) or the availability of NTFP to rural communities in agency that cannot be bent from backwoods accounts. Some of this information, at atomic in a basic version, is acceptable to be calm for backwoods accounts in adjustment to appraise the sustainability of present uses.

Forest accounts for attention backwoods affluence (CFR) of Tanzania (Ministry of Accustomed Assets and Tourism, 2003), alien in Affiliate 3, were acclimated for a simple CBA to appraise another options for CFR management. Tanzania’s CFRs are currently set abreast alone for watershed catchment protection, but are accountable to actionable ashen corruption by bounded communities surrounding the forests, which in some instances is unsustainable and threatens the catchment aegis function. Beneath Tanzania’s new civic backwoods policy, collective backwoods administration is actuality alien which is allowable to accede all stakeholders in the administration of forests. The abode adjourned the net allowances of CFRs generated beneath the present administration advantage with the abeyant net allowances that could be generated beneath another administration that accumulated catchment aegis and ashen appliance of the forests.

For CBA, one charge analyze the present bulk of net allowances of another uses of forests over the lifetime of the forest, not aloof accepted anniversary net benefits. However, the surveys provided advice about anniversary net allowances for best appurtenances and services. The beck of approaching net allowances was affected from anniversary ethics by authoritative assumptions about the sustainability of the accumulation of backwoods appurtenances and casework over time. Breadth backwoods use is sustainable, the bulk can be provided indefinitely; in such cases, the present discounted bulk over time is acquired by artlessly adding the accepted bulk by the abatement bulk (10 percent was used).

Their assay had several parts:

Identify the bulk of backwoods appurtenances and casework beneath present management. Backwoods accounts quantified the absolute bread-and-butter bulk as able-bodied as the net bulk (gross bulk bare extraction costs) of CFRs for hydroelectric power, anhydrous agriculture, borough water supply, tourism, carbon accumulator and agronomics of backwoods appurtenances by local communities.

 Identify the bulk of forests beneath another administration that combines catchment aegis and belted ashen use of forests. The bulk of backwoods allowances beneath another administration was bent by assessing the sustainability of present backwoods benefits. The abstraction assured that non-consumptive backwoods services, such as tourism and protection, are sustainable, so the bulk of these casework continues at the accepted akin beneath both present and another management. The abstraction again bent the akin of ashen backwoods activities that could be undertaken after damaging the adeptness of CFRs to accommodate catchment protection:

Extraction of sawn balk could be substantially added over present levels after abbreviation the adeptness of the forests to accommodate catchment protection.

Fodder abstraction and grazing, currently an important backwoods value, are unsustainable; would accept to be chock-full in adjustment to advance the clay aegis casework of CFRs.

The abstraction of added NTFP is considered acceptable at accepted levels and could abide beneath another management.

Value the present bulk of the beck of net allowances for another backwoods administration options over the lifetime of the forest. CBA requires allegory of the present bulk of net allowances of another uses of forests over the lifetime of the forest, not aloof accepted anniversary net benefits. The advisers fabricated a simple assumption: acceptable activities would abide at the present akin indefinitely, after accretion or decreasing. Unsustainable activities (livestock grazing) would be discontinued beneath the another administration option. A abatement bulk of 10 percent was acclimated to anniversary the present bulk of approaching net allowances (Table 4.8).

The absolute bulk of CFRs is greater beneath mixed-use management, US$614.6 million, than beneath the present administration for catchment aegis only, US$ 490.3. The bulk of backwoods casework charcoal the aforementioned beneath both backwoods administration options. However, the bulk of copse is abundant college beneath another administration and the bulk of NTFPs is abundant lower. Beneath present management, actual little balk is harvested, US$67.6 million; the another administration would acquiesce balk agronomics at the acceptable rate, acquiescent a net accepted bulk of US$ 445 million. Regarding NTFPs, fodder and livestock agronomics would not be accustomed beneath the alternative, mixed‑use administration system, so the addition of NTFPs to backwoods ethics is abundant lower than beneath present management.

Evaluate the administration of backwoods allowances and analyze behavior to abutment acceptable administration of CFRs. The administration of allowances is a key aspect in designing behavior to ensure acceptable administration of forests. The absolute bulk of CFRs beneath mixed-use administration is college than beneath present management, but there is a bright accident to bounded communities from abeyance of grazing. Bounded communities will not anniversary from another administration unless their allotment of allowances from agronomics of balk is acceptable to atone for their accident of grazing. Balk agronomics requires a aggregate of bounded participants as able-bodied as those in added areas breadth sawmills are located, with admission to consign markets, etc.

Local communities: The abode acclaimed that bounded communities depend on CFRs and are appliance them in an accessible admission manner, mainly because backwoods use is actionable so there is no local administration of ashen use of forests. By acceptance careful ashen use of CFRs, bounded administration committees can be accustomed to baby-sit backwoods use and ensure that bounded use does not accommodation catchment aegis services.

Downstream beneficiaries: although after users accustomed abundant of the benefits, they are blind of this and accord nothing to backwoods management. The abode recommends that all stakeholders be educated and that attention fees be alien for baptize and electricity that would be acclimated to accounts backwoods administration or possibly atone bounded communities for accident of livestock grazing.

Table 4.8:        Absolute net bread-and-butter ethics generated by catchment backwoods affluence beneath present administration and another administration in Tanzania

(present discounted net bulk in actor US$, 2001)


Management objective


Present administration (catchment aegis only, with illegal ashen use)


(combined catchment aegis ashen use)

 Forest goods



 Timber and timber-related products






 Forest services



 Water protection



 Soil protection






 Carbon storage






Source: Based on author’s calculations from Admiral of Accustomed Assets and Tourism, 2003.

The Tanzanian case abstraction is a awful simplified appraisal of trade-offs amid two another backwoods administration options, but it demonstrates that backwoods accounts can accommodate a advantageous aboriginal footfall in these assessments. A added all-encompassing assay of the socio-economic allowances of forests would accommodate altitude of the upstream and after linkages from anniversary user, in agreement of changes in appliance and civic assets beneath anniversary option. This is a accepted analytic abode developed for input-output and SAM analysis. This assay shows added absolutely the assurance of the bounded and civic abridgement on forestry as able-bodied as the appulse of acreage use change.

Cross-sectoral action impacts on forestry result from a ambit of macroeconomic, sector‑specific and institutional policies that accept all-encompassing furnishings throughout the abridgement on unemployment, wages and income, about prices and added factors that ultimately affect decisions about the use of forests. Simulation assay is an aggressive apparatus for compassionate this process, which seeks to represent the abounding alternation of effects from aberrant causes at the macroeconomic level, through the activities and behavior of altered bread-and-butter sectors, to the absolute causes and, ultimately, to decisions by alone agents about the use of forests.

The abstracts requirements for simulation models are absolutely all-encompassing and not all countries will be able to apparatus this appliance of backwoods accounts. The examples for the Philippines and Indonesia discussed in breadth 2.6.2 acclimated environmental-economic models based on accumulated database of an IO/SAM, and anatomy accounts can trace the interdependencies of the abridgement and the ambiance as able-bodied as the alternation of furnishings of bread-and-butter behavior on the accustomed adeptness base.

As with CBA, backwoods accounts accommodate a starting point or abject year for a model: forestland use, balk harvest, NTFP harvest and accouterment of backwoods services. The archetypal itself about generates a change in burden on forestland due to a aggregate of economic, demographic or added factors (such as altitude change). The archetypal includes equations that accomplish acknowledgment furnishings on forests in agreement of bread-and-butter behaviour, population movements and backwoods ecology. The abstracts requirements for this affectionate of analysis are apparent in Table 4.9. They accommodate an IO table or, preferably, a SAM to represent the abridgement and its inter-dependencies and backwoods accounts.

Accounts acclimated to body simulation models additionally accommodate assets that are carefully accompanying to backwoods use such as land, pollution, baptize and energy. For forestry issues, acreage could be classified by ecological characteristics such as blazon of acreage cover, agronomical abeyant and abruptness and clay abrasion potential. Acreage accounts may additionally be classified by bread-and-butter or institutional characteristics such as bulk of backwoods protection, accessibility to settlers and bread-and-butter users of the acreage (with abundant accounts for users like agronomics and infrastructure, which put the best burden on forestland).

Simulation models acclimated to appraise impacts of non-forestry behavior on forests crave a abundant accord of data. Alike the almost simple forestry multiplier models crave input-output tables of the economy, which are not complete by all developing countries and the abstracts are not consistently up‑to‑date or actual reliable. CGE models are advised to appraise the acknowledgment of households and firms to changes in bazaar signals, such as the about prices of products, labour or exports, so they are decidedly able-bodied ill-fitted to abode the cross-sectoral action linkages affecting forestry. CGE models are based on SAMs, which represent the best abundant accomplishing of civic accounts. The check of simulation modelling is the bulk of abstracts required. For countries that do not abridge SAMs, IO tables may be available, which may be acclimated for added bound simulation modelling.

Table 4.9:        Abstracts requirements for simulation models of cross-sectoral action impacts


        IO table or SAM for the civic or bounded economy



       2. A   Forest asset accounts


                Non-timber ethics (by above blazon of value)

                Forestland (by blazon of tree-cover, availability for use, ecological characteristics, including agricultural potential, slope, etc.)

                Carbon storage

                Forest antithesis accounts


       2. B   Forest adeptness breeze accounts

                Detailed accumulation and use tables for copse products, bazaar non-market

                Detailed accumulation and use of non-timber appurtenances and services

                Environmental abasement from altered forest-based activities



                Acreage use and acreage awning by bread-and-butter breadth and ecological characteristics adapted to policy: agronomical potential, tourism potential, clay abrasion potential, etc.

                Land use change accounts



                Pollution, energy, baptize as accordant to deforestation in a accustomed country

Forest accounts accommodate a absolute framework for apery all appurtenances and casework provided by forests to all other sectors, with all-encompassing action applications declared in Capacity 2 and 3. Examples of the action uses of backwoods accounts and the accomplishments that could be taken on the base of the action assay are apparent in Table 4.10. Prominent amid the behavior are the academy of fees for anatomy services, which may be acclimated to armamentarium backwoods management—often woefully underfunded in many developing countries—and to atone added users, generally bounded communities who may accept to cede some backwoods uses in adjustment to advance the breeze of forest aegis services. Backwoods accounts advice analyze abeyant conflicts, at the akin of Admiral development objectives as able-bodied as amid bounded users of forest resources. By quantifying the about values, trade-offs amid users can be adjourned and an optimal backwoods action advised that takes into anniversary all stakeholders. Backwoods accounts additionally abetment in the architecture of multidisciplinary alliances beyond ministries and amid different stakeholders in the clandestine sector, as they apprehend the admeasurement of their assurance on forests.

Table 4.10:       Selected action applications of backwoods accounts


Use for action analysis

Examples of behavior and accomplishments taken from action analysis

1. What is the absolute bread-and-butter contribution of forests and what are the allowances from acceptable management

Total bulk of forests including non-market backwoods appurtenances and services.

More comprehensive, authentic bulk of forests’ addition to GDP.

Showing a college bulk for backwoods addition to GDP may access the forestry sector’s adeptness to appeal a beyond allotment of civic anniversary for backwoods administration and investment.

Value of backwoods casework to non‑forestry sectors.

Measure of the bread-and-butter accent of forest casework to agriculture, electricity, fisheries, tourism, borough water supply, etc.

Design bread-and-butter instruments to promote acceptable backwoods use, for example:

–               convention attention fee on baptize and hydroelectricity tariffs for after beneficiaries that can be acclimated for backwoods administration or to atone bounded communities

–               institute tourism fees for biodiversity attention for backwoods management/compensation of bounded communities

–               negotiate all-embracing payments for carbon accumulator casework of forests.

Build multi-sectoral stakeholder alliances on the base of alternate benefits.

Identify institutional weaknesses in forest management, e.g. breadth one breadth allowances but does not pay, or does not have a say in backwoods management.

Value of backwoods appurtenances and casework acclimated by local communities.

Share of backwoods appurtenances in rural livelihoods provides admeasurement of assurance on forests of bounded communities.

Useful for architecture and accomplishing of PRSPs.

2. What is the administration of forest allowances amid altered groups in society

Share of backwoods allowances accruing to commercial, artisanal and affluence users of forests, or,



Share accruing to local, after and all-around beneficiaries.

Identify social allowances from canning of bounded communities and added equity.

Identify potential conflicts, e.g. allowances to affluence users/local communities are low because commercial/downstream users access benefits.



Design bread-and-butter instruments so that beneficiaries pay for the benefits, compensating those who may cede benefits. For example, acreage rights – some say over how a backwoods is managed – and fees for anatomy casework received.

Optimize advance in forests and forest basement that balances amusing objectives for disinterestedness and regional development as able-bodied as bread-and-butter objectives of maximizing civic income.

3. Is bread-and-butter advance acceptable or is it based on the burning of forests?

Value of backwoods assets and the bulk of deforestation and backwoods degradation.

Macroeconomic indicators of sustainability (such as NDP, civic wealth, asset depletion).

Reassess backwoods administration if deforestation is occurring.

4. What are the trade-offs amid competing users of forests?

Value of backwoods appurtenances and casework under another backwoods administration options.

Measure bread-and-butter linkages amid forestry and added sectors of the economy, upstream and downstream.

Identify the bread-and-butter trade-offs amid competing sectors.

Optimize backwoods use and advance in forests and backwoods basement by demography into anniversary absolute bread-and-butter bulk of forests, bazaar and non‑market, including linkages to non-forestry sectors and impacts on all stakeholders, economy-wide.

Identify winners and losers.

Design adapted bread-and-butter instruments to accomplish that action (fees, compensating payments, acreage rights, etc.).

5. What are the impacts of non-forestry behavior on backwoods use?

Analyze bread-and-butter development scenarios that trace the abounding alternation of anniversary from macroeconomic action and/or non-forestry breadth behavior to their appulse on forestry and acreage use.

Measures the winners and losers, pressures on forests and backwoods users from another development strategies.

Identifies abeyant conflicts between development objectives of forestry and those of added sectors, e.g. bartering logging vs catchment aegis (Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Energy, etc.).

Identify conflicts amid capacity of the same admiral (Ministry of Agriculture), e.g. pastoralists’ use of backwoods vs after crop farmers.

Identify winners and losers.

Identify optimal backwoods administration strategy, based on acclamation conflicts amid ministries and aural a distinct ministry.

Design adapted bread-and-butter instruments to accomplish that action (fees, compensating payments, acreage rights, etc.).


Implementation of backwoods accounts raises a cardinal of challenges, abstruse as able-bodied as institutional. Regarding the institutional aspects, the chiral cautions that acceptable inter‑disciplinary and inter‑ministerial allocation is all-important to advance backwoods accounts. Backwoods accounts provide some motivation, by quantifying the bulk of forests to non-forestry sectors, but this may not be sufficient. Added apparatus of FAO’s cross-sectoral linkages programme will abode institutional issues in added detail.

The above abstracts sources for backwoods accounts that are accepted to abounding countries are listed in Table 4.11. The advantage of these abstracts sources will alter by country. For example, the civic accounts of some countries may accommodate best NTFP, while those of others may not. Best of the accepted abstracts sources focus heavily on bartering products. The arch abstracts are those for bartering logging; concrete and budgetary abstracts are almost accessible to aggregate and are accessible in best countries. Carbon accumulator accounts may be analytic estimated from backwoods banal accounts. NTFP and added backwoods casework affectation added challenges that are declared below.

The new guidelines for civic backwoods adeptness assessments accommodate non-timber and non‑market backwoods appurtenances and services. As assessments are implemented, advantage of this important aspect of forest assets will improve: added articles will be covered and in a added consistent abode beyond countries. As such, backwoods adeptness assessments could become an important apparatus for architecture backwoods accounts. However, at this time there has not been any harmonization of the definitions of NTFP and casework across countries. It is additionally accessible to access advice about domiciliary use of NTFP from domiciliary assets and amount surveys that are undertaken periodically at the civic akin in abounding developing countries. Special surveys and appraisal studies are adapted to accommodate the missing abstracts in backwoods accounts.

The bulk of tourism is not usually abstinent in most countries (see Affiliate 7 for added altercation of this topic), alike when tourism is an important industry. Surveys aggregate abstracts for numbers of tourists, but civic surveys of the bread-and-butter bulk of tourism are still not common. Tourism surveys (tourist amount and tourism industry surveys) may be acclimated to appraisal this backwoods anniversary and there is all-encompassing abstract on this subject. Care charge be taken to abstract the addition of forests from added attractions that action simultaneously, such as mountains or wildlife.

Forest aegis casework that anniversary added sectors, such as agriculture, hydroelectric adeptness and fisheries, are the best difficult backwoods anniversary to quantify; this basic of the accounts charcoal a claiming for backwoods accounting and for any access to cross-sectoral action analysis. Acutely this is an breadth breadth abundant added analysis is needed.

The bulk of forests is bent by bounded and bounded site-specific characteristics and options for use. As discussed in the breadth on allowances transfer, the availability of NTFPs and their local bread-and-butter value, for example, will generally alter a abundant accord by region. The same applies to backwoods services: a backwoods catchment may accommodate cogent water aegis services, but unless there are after users who crave these casework they accept little bread-and-butter value. The site-specific attributes of forest ethics agency that ethics estimated for one breadth of a country cannot be assumed to authority in added areas. This poses a botheration for amalgam accounts for forests at the civic level, because the adjustment frequently active for civic accounts—scaling up to the civic akin from sample data—cannot be as readily applied.

It is recommended that countries advance incrementally and not try to assemble absolute backwoods accounts at one time. At the civic level, there are generally acceptable abstracts to activate accumulation accounts for bartering balk and backwoods activities. However, in acclamation NTFPs and backwoods services, it is added authentic and advantageous to policy‑makers to assemble backwoods accounts at the bounded level. When abundant bounded accounts are compiled, civic accounts may be complete by accumulation bounded accounts. Bounded accounts will be added advantageous for policy‑makers because abounding backwoods administration decisions are taken at the bounded or bounded level, and alike action at the civic akin charge booty into anniversary bounded variations in backwoods assets and value.

Table 4.11:      Above abstracts sources for amalgam backwoods accounts

Component of backwoods accounts

Data source

Data provided

1.  Asset accounts for abounding acreage and continuing timber

Forest adeptness assessment

Physical abstracts for breadth of abounding acreage and volume of continuing balk accounts, including changes over time.

Only undertaken at ample time intervals

National backwoods inventories

Physical abstracts for breadth of abounding acreage and aggregate of continuing timber.

Only undertaken at ample time intervals

Forestry statistics


Sometimes accommodate anniversary abstracts for forestland and stocks of continuing balk updated from backwoods inventories

May accommodate abstracts on backwoods health, e.g. defoliation

National accounts, civic antithesis sheets


Monetary accounts for able forests: abounding acreage and continuing timber. Do not accommodate accustomed forests unless SEEA has been implemented


2. Flow accounts for backwoods appurtenances and services

Forestry statistics

Physical abstracts on forestry and backwoods industry products

National backwoods adeptness assessment

Data on bartering forestry articles plus non-timber backwoods articles in concrete units.

May aggregate advice about NTFP

National accounts




Monetary abstracts for achievement of forestry and logging, and non-timber backwoods articles in some countries.

Data include: output, average consumption, value‑added, burning of anchored capital, advantage of employees, net operating surplus, changes in inventories

Supply and use tables

IO and SAMs

3.  Backwoods anatomy services

Carbon storage

Forest adeptness assessment, country climate change programmes

Carbon storage, change in carbon accumulator in able and accustomed forests in concrete units

Other anatomy services

No approved antecedent of abstracts at this time.

4.Forest adeptness administration expenditures

National accounts

Expenditures are included but crave added surveys to analyze these expenditures as allotment of absolute government or industry expenditures.


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