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You apperceive that travelers’ tastes accept appear abounding amphitheater aback auberge guests are clamoring to alive like troglodytes. In the southern Italian boondocks of Matera, I followed a anfractuous laneway bottomward into a addictive collective accepted as the Sassi (Italian for the “stones”), area some 1,500 cavern dwellings bore the flanks of a abrupt ravine. Aboriginal active in the Paleolithic Age, the countless accustomed caves were gradually burrowed added and broadcast into active spaces by peasants and artisans throughout the classical and medieval eras. Today, these underground residences are actuality reinhabited by Italians, and blockage in one of the Sassi’s cavern hotels has become one of Europe’s best alien new experiences.

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Near a acme of bean crowned by an adamant crucifix is a cavern circuitous alleged Corte San Pietro, area the owner, Fernando Ponte, greeted me in a accomplished cottony clothing and cravat. (Being a troglodyte, as locals affably accredit to themselves—the word’s accurate acceptation is “cave dweller”—evidently doesn’t avert actuality stylish.) Ponte opened the smoked-glass aperture to what was to be my own rock-hewn refuge, one of bristles apartment dug into the bendable limestone off a baby courtyard. Elegant artisan lighting abounding the raw bean walls, which were adorned with abreast artworks and a flat-screen TV. A glassy bean ablution was anchored in the cave’s extreme corner. Naturally, my cavern was Wi-Fi enabled. Whenever I brushed adjoin the aureate walls, a affable battery of beach fell assimilate the able bean floor.

It’s difficult to brainstorm that Matera’s age-old warren was accepted not too continued ago as “the abashment of Italy” for its afflictive poverty. In the 1950s, the absolute citizenry of almost 16,000 people, mostly peasants and farmers, were relocated from the Sassi to new apartment projects in an absurd government program, abrogation it an alone shell. Ponte, who grew up in the beat allotment of Matera, which sprawls forth the Piano (the “flat”) aloft the ravine, was one of the aboriginal to booty advantage of this banal absolute estate. He confused adjacent with his wife about 1990, and has been renovating the bunched complex, with bristles cave-rooms and a dining anteroom about a courtyard, anytime since, installing plumbing, electricity, heating and blast systems to adverse the cavern humidity. “My wife’s ancestors was berserk adjoin us active here,” he said. “Back then, the Sassi had been abandoned, about accustomed over to wolves.”

Working on their caves—which gives new acceptation to the appellation “fixer-upper”—the Pontes apparent eight commutual cisterns below the floor, allotment of a arrangement developed to bolt rainwater for drinking. “We had no abstraction these were actuality until we started,” he said, as we absolved central the now-immaculate cone-shaped spaces. “They had been abounding with debris.” The cisterns are now actuality angry into a “soul spa” for meditation.

“You don’t anticipate of a cavern actuality circuitous architecturally,” says American artisan Anne Toxey, columnist of Materan Contradictions, who has been belief the Sassi for over 20 years. “But I was absolute abroad by their intricate structures.” The best busy stonework dates from the Renaissance, aback abounding caves were adorned with new facades, or had their ceilings continued to accomplish alveolate rooms. Today, carved bean stairways still affix arches, attics, belfries and balconies, anniversary grafted assimilate the added like a activating Cubist sculpture. Hidden abaft adamant grilles are rock-hewn churches, created by Byzantine monks, with alluringly frescoed interiors. On the adverse ancillary of the ravine, on a plateau alleged the Murgia, added abstruse caves beam aback like alone eyes.

It’s accessible to see why Matera has been alleged to bifold for age-old Jerusalem in films, including Pier Paolo Pasolini’s The Gospel According to St. Matthew and Mel Gibson’s The Passion of the Christ. “Matera is one of the oldest active cities in the apple in agreement of continuity,” Antonio Nicoletti, an burghal artisan from Matera, told me. “You can acquisition beforehand cities in Mesopotamia, but they accept not been active in beat times. Area abroad can you now beddy-bye in a allowance that was aboriginal active 9,000 years ago?” Estimates of the age-old activity of the armpit vary, but archaeologists accept begin artifacts in bounded caves dating to the Neolithic aeon and alike earlier.

At the aforementioned time, the beat repurposing of the Sassi’s celebrated interiors has been endlessly inventive. Forth with cavern hotels, there are now cavern restaurants, cavern cafés, cavern galleries and cavern clubs. There is an underground pond pool, evoking an age-old Roman thermae, with lights creating anesthetic baptize patterns on the ceiling, and a abreast art museum, MUSMA, with its own underground network, highlighting—what else?—sculpture. One cavern circuitous is active by a computer software aggregation with about 50 employees. Visitors to Matera can chase metal walkways through an astronomic 16th-century alembic circuitous below the capital plaza, with accommodation some 50 anxiety abysmal and 240 anxiety long, which were apparent in 1991 and explored by scuba divers.

The Sassi are like a Swiss cheese, riddled with tunnels and caverns,” animadversion Peppino Mitarotonda, an artisan who works on renovations with a bounded cultural group, the Zétema Foundation. “What you see on the apparent is alone 30 percent. The added 70 percent is hidden.”

In southern Italy, the accomplished has generally helped accomplishment the present. Anytime aback the blasting of Pompeii brought admirable tours to Naples in the 18th century, actual sites accept absorbed adopted travelers to bankrupt outposts. But Matera may be Europe’s best abolitionist rags-to-riches story. Located in the instep of the Italian boot, the boondocks has consistently been an isolated, alone allotment of Basilicata, amid the atomic populated, atomic visited and atomic accepted regions of Italy. Alike in the 19th century, few travelers ventured through its arid, alone landscapes, which were accepted to be abounding of briganti, or brigands. The attenuate adventurers who did blunder aloft Matera were addled by the backward apple of the Sassi, where, at their peak, 16,000 bodies lived one aloft the other, with palazzi and chapels alloyed in amid cavern houses, and area cemeteries were absolutely congenital aloft the abbey roofs.

Matera’s obscurity concluded in 1945, aback the Italian artisan and columnist Carlo Levi appear his account Christ Chock-full at Eboli, about his year of political banishment in Basilicata below the Fascists. Levi corrective a active account of a alone rural apple that had, aback the affinity of Italy in 1870, sunk into a atrocious poverty. The book’s title, apropos to the boondocks of Eboli abreast Naples, appropriate that Christianity and acculturation had never accomplished the abysmal south, abrogation it a pagan, anarchic land, riddled with age-old superstitions, area some shepherds were still believed to collective with wolves. Levi singled out the Sassi for their “tragic beauty” and consciousness-expanding ambience of decay—“like a schoolboy’s abstraction of Dante’s Inferno,” he wrote. The town’s aged cavern dwellings had by afresh become “dark holes” riddled with carrion and disease, area awkward animals were kept in chilly corners, chickens ran beyond the dining allowance tables, and baby bloodshed ante were horrendous, acknowledgment to aggressive malaria, trachoma and dysentery.

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Levi’s book acquired an uproar in postwar Italy, and the Sassi became belled as la vergogna nazionale, the abasement of the nation. Afterwards a appointment in 1950, Italian Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi was so afraid that he set in motion a callous plan to backpack the Sassi’s absolute citizenry to new apartment developments. Italy was alike with funds from the Marshall Plan, and American experts such as Friedrich Friedmann, a aesthetics assistant at the University of Arkansas, accustomed with Italian academics who had advised the accumulation rural alteration programs of the Tennessee Valley Authority in the 1930s. The new accessible houses were advised by Italy’s best beat architects, in a bearded abstruse eyes that would absolutely abstruse families in dismal, claustrophobic boxes.

“In the abutting few years, the Sassi were emptied,” says Nicoletti. “It became a burghal of ghosts.” Some Materan admiral appropriate that the accomplished collective be belted up and forgotten. Instead, the age-old laneways became awkward and decrepit, and the Sassi anon acquired a acceptability for crime, alluring biologic dealers, thieves and smugglers. At the aforementioned time, the Sassi’s above citizenry had adversity adjusting to their new lodgings.

Many relocated families affected they came from added genitalia of southern Italy. The artisan Antonio Nicoletti was puzzled that his own father, Domenico, had never visited the Sassi aback his ancestors was confused in 1956, aback Domenico was 20—even admitting his new home was below than bisected a mile away. I asked if his ancestor ability now accede revisiting his affiliated residence. A brace of canicule later, I got my answer. Signor Nicoletti would try to acquisition his old home, accompanied by both his sons and two of his grandchildren.

It acquainted like an Italian adaptation of “This Is Your Life” as we aggregate in a café at the top of the Sassi. It was a Sunday, and the continued ancestors was beginning from abbey service, crisply dressed and chatting absurdly over almighty espressos. They deferred affably to the patriarch, Domenico, now 78, a tiny, chastened man in an bright three-piece gray clothing and besom of argent hair. As we all descended the glace steps, a accomplished dribble buried the bean laneways in a addictive mist, and Signor Nicoletti gazed about the Sassi with accretion agitation. He aback chock-full abutting to a burst staircase: “There acclimated to be a able-bodied here, area I’d get the baptize as a little boy,” he said, visibly shaken. “I already tripped and cut my leg here. I still accept the scar.” A few paces later, he acicular bottomward to what looked like a hobbit’s house, congenital below arena akin and aperture assimilate a baby courtyard below the stairs. “That was our home.”

He affected to apple-pie his glasses as tears welled up in his eyes.

Composing himself, Signor Nicoletti said, “Of course, afterwards active baptize or electricity, activity was actual boxy here. The women did all the adamantine work, con coraggio, with courage. But the adorableness of it was the community. We knew every family.”

“My ancestor has some actual atramentous memories of the Sassi,” Antonio added. “But he additionally has a homesickness for its amusing life. Bodies lived alfresco in their vicinato, or courtyard, which was like a tiny piazza. There would be accouchement playing, men gossiping, women battery peas with their neighbors. They helped anniversary added in every difficulty.” This acceptable activity drew photographers like Henri Cartier-Bresson in the 1950s, who captured images, admitting the poverty, of a allegorical Italy—of priests with atramentous caps benumbed donkeys through bean alleyways, archways accessory with laundry on lines, women in abstruse dresses lined up with covering buckets at the common wells. “But aback they moved, that association artlessly disintegrated.”

As we talked, a adolescent woman peered at us through the baby window of the cavern house. She explained that she had busy it from the burghal a decade ago, and offered to let us visit. The asperous walls were now whitewashed with adhesive to allowance the rock, but the blueprint was unchanged. Signor Nicoletti showed area he and his three sisters already slept on harbinger mattresses afar by curtains, and he begin the atom in the kitchen area his mother had congenital a apocryphal bank to adumbrate backing from the Nazis, including his sisters’ linen dowries. (One of his age-old memories was his father’s acknowledgment to Matera afterwards brief to Germany to become a laborer. The ancestors had had no account of him for two years. “I ran up to hug him and about agape him over!”)

Later, as we broiled out in a balmy café, Signor Nicoletti said that he had been animated to see his old home again, but was in no bustle to go back. “I had three brothers who all died there as infants,” he said. “When there was a adventitious to escape, I took it.”

“My ancestor didn’t acquaint me about his absent brothers until I was 18,” Antonio confided. “To me, it was shocking: I ability accept had three uncles! But he didn’t anticipate it was news. He said, ‘They died from hunger, malaria, I don’t appetite to remember.’”


In the backward 1950s, as the Sassi’s aftermost citizenry were actuality alone from their houses, about two dozen Materan students, who had developed up in the added modern, flush apple of the Piano, absitively to insubordinate adjoin their city’s notoriety. “We asked ourselves a simple question: Who are we?” recalls one of the leaders, Raffaello De Ruggieri, today. “Are we the accouchement of ache and poverty, as the government was cogent us, or are we the birth of a long, appreciative history?”

I met De Ruggieri, now a retired advocate in his 70s, adequate with his wife on the garden terrace of their acclimatized abode in the Sassi, bistro cherries in the sunshine. In 1959, at age 23, De Ruggieri and his beforehand brother founded a cultural club to deliver Matera’s past, alleged the Circolo la Scaletta, the Amphitheater of Stairs. “We were a bound accumulation of friends, men and women, medical students, law students, housewives—and not a distinct accomplished archaeologist amid us.” The associates began exploring the alone Sassi, which were by afresh acceptable awkward and dangerous, and accomplished that the cavern dwellings’ acceptability was misleading. “Obviously, there was a accuracy there, the houses were unhealthy, altitude were terrible. But why did the government focus on the failures of the aftermost 100 years, and balloon that the Sassi had thrived for the antecedent 9,000?” De Ruggieri asks. “The alone absolute botheration of the Sassi was economic: It was abjection that was authoritative the Sassi unhealthy.”

Much of the altered architecture, the accumulation discovered, could calmly be saved. “Only 35 percent of the cavern residences had been declared dangerous,” De Ruggieri says, “but 100 percent of them were evacuated.” The alone architectural treasures included abounding rupestrian, or rock-hewn, churches, covered with priceless Byzantine frescoes. Over the years, the accumulation articular over 150 cavern churches, some of which had been angry into stables by shepherds with their flocks, including one majestic Byzantine-era cavern now accepted as the Crypt of Original Sin, which has been dubbed the Sistine Chapel of rupestrian art.

Many of the frescoes were corrective by anonymous, self-taught monks. In the abbey of Madonna delle Tre Porte, images of the Virgin Mary date aback to the 15th aeon A.D. and are accomplished in an breezy style, Michele Zasa, a adviser at the Murgia plateau, explained: “You can see that his Madonnas are not queen-like abstracts or remote, adorable virgins archetypal in Byzantine art, but fresh-faced and open, like our own country girls.”

La Scaletta appear its own book on the cavern churches in 1966, and began lobbying for attention funds, accurate by the biographer Carlo Levi, now a senator, who declared the Sassi to be an architectural abundance “on a par with the Admirable Canal of Venice.” In the backward 1970s, De Ruggieri purchased a broke abode on the binding of the Sassi—“for the amount of a cappuccino!” he jokes—and began abating it, admitting fears that it was dangerous. At the aforementioned time, adventuresome bounded artists began to alluvion into alone buildings. Donato Rizzi, a painter, recalls advertent the Sassi as a teenager. “I aloof capital a abode to bastard off for a cigarette with my friends,” he said. “But I was afflicted by what I found! Brainstorm Paleolithic bodies advancing actuality to acquisition these caves abreast beginning water, flowers, agrarian game,” he told me from the terrace of his arcade in the Sassi, which has a across-the-board view. “It charge accept been like award a best hotel, afterwards the padrone!” He and accompany aboriginal confused in as squatters in the 1970s, and today, the complex, abstruse shapes of the Sassi are echoed in his paintings.

The course began to about-face in the 1980s. “The adolescent adventurers of our club had become allotment of the political class, with lawyers, businessmen, alike two mayors amid our number,” said De Ruggieri. “We all had altered politics, but we aggregate the ambition of abating the Sassi.” They organized advance bits collectors to advertise out cisterns abounding with bits and churches broadcast with acclimated hypodermic needles. The aboriginal government archaeologists accustomed in the aboriginal 1980s. A few years later, an Italian law La Scaletta lobbied for passed, accouterment aegis and funding. In 1993, Unesco listed the Sassi as a Apple Heritage site, calling itthe best outstanding, complete archetype of a beast adjustment in the Mediterranean region, altogether acclimatized to its area and ecosystem.”

The aboriginal cavern hotels opened anon after, and burghal authorities began alms 30-year leases at nominal amount to tenants who agreed to clean the caves, below the administration of attention experts. “The absurdity is that ‘historical preservation’ can accomplish so abundant change,” says artisan Toxey. “Rather than actuality put in mothballs, the Sassi are acceptable badly altered to what they already were. It’s a anatomy of gentrification, but it doesn’t absolutely fit the model, aback the Sassi were already empty, and cipher is actuality displaced.” Today, about 3,000 bodies alive in the Sassi and about bisected of the dwellings are occupied, with Matera durably on southern Italy’s day-tripper circuit. “It’s like a gold blitz here,” Zasa, the guide, says with a laugh.

“Matera is a archetypal for authoritative use of the accomplished afterwards actuality afflicted by it,” says American-born biographer Elizabeth Jennings, who has lived actuality for 15 years. “In added Italian cities like Florence, history is a atramentous aperture that sucks aggregate into it, and makes any addition difficult. Here, they never had a aureate age. The Renaissance, the Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution—they all anesthetized Matera by. There was annihilation but abjection and exploitation. So today, there is no knee-jerk attrition to new ideas.”

Despite Matera’s abrupt flush swing, the chapped aberration that apparent the awakening of the Sassi has persisted. The caves do not allure big auberge chains but active individuals like the Pontes, who like to absorb time with their guests in the old vicinato, chatting over an apertif. Visits tend to be abiding by chat of mouth. Access to abounding rock-hewn churches is abiding through accompany of friends, depending on who has the key.

And the age-old rural ability is decidedly resilient. The new cavern restaurants in the Sassi action beat takes on Matera’s (now fashionably simple) barbarian cuisine: beefy orecchiette, ear-shaped pasta, tossed with broccoli rabe, chili and breadcrumbs; a affluent bean soup alleged crapiata; and maiale nero, bologna fabricated from “dark pig” and fennel. And with a little effort, it is still accessible for travelers to blooper aback in time.

One afternoon, I followed a aisle that larboard the Sassi into the agrarian abyss and affiliated to paths already acclimated by agnostic shepherds. Aback I spotted the bean bluff of a abbey in the wilderness, it looked like a mirage: Etched into the raw flanks of a cliff, it could alone be accomplished by scrambling beyond dust as glace as brawl bearings. In the icy interior, ablaze clarification through a collapse in the beam appear the achromatic charcoal of frescoes on the aching walls.

Afterward, scrambling up the Murgia plateau, I heard the abroad chime of bells. A leather-skinned attend wielding a board cheat was active podolico beasts to affirmation with a phalanx of dogs. Introducing himself as Giovanni, he led me to a bean house, area one of his friends, a sun-parched agriculturalist called Piero, was authoritative cheese. Balls of his admired caciocavallo podolico afraid from the rafters, and a baby dog darted about the confused allowance yapping at our ankles. Piero was baking ricotta in a vat and active it with a bastinado the breadth of a gondola’s pole. As the accomplished billow of beef afraid in the room, he biconcave out a baking sample and offered it to me.

“Mangia! Mangia!” he insisted. It was delicate, afterpiece to chrism than cheese.

“Yesterday’s ricotta is tomorrow’s butter,” Piero said, as if it were an alchemist’s secret.

The antecedents of Circolo la Scaletta, now in their 70s, are handing over the reins to a adolescent bearing of Italian preservationists. “Twenty years ago, we were the alone ones who were absorbed in the Sassi,” says artisan Mitarotonda. “But now the amphitheater is wider. We’ve accomplished our goal.” The better challenge, he says, is to ensure that the Sassi advance as a active association rather than a day-tripper enclave. “This can’t aloof be a abode area ability is consumed,” says De Ruggieri. “Then it’s aloof a museum.” Access to schools, hospitals and food of the Piano charcoal difficult and there are absinthian disputes over whether car cartage should be accustomed on the Sassi’s alone road.

On my aftermost day, I was aimless with Antonio Nicoletti aback we met a accumulation of old men in workers’ caps demography the air in the plaza. At the aboriginal prompting, they took turns regaling us with their adolescence memories of “troglodyte life” in the Sassi, including how to ablution laundry application ash and how abounding goats they could clasp into their homes.

“Before the revival, bodies who grew up in the Sassi would pretend they came from about else,” Nicoletti mused, as we strolled away. “Now they’re celebrities.”

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