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One of the world’s aboriginal aqueous alkali belfry concentrated solar ability (CSP) projects that uses a “Stellio” heliostat was grid-connected at the end of December in China’s Xinjiang arena abreast the Mongolian border. The 50-MW Hami pilot activity developed by Chinese state-owned aggregation China Ability Engineering Consulting Group marks a above anniversary for the atypical heliostat design, which went from abstraction to architecture in a bald bristles years.
The $226 actor Hami activity is a axial receiver bulb that uses aqueous salts as calefaction alteration aqueous and as a thermal accumulator system. According to its developer, the activity operates with a 43% thermal ability beneath ambient temperatures of 19C, and an air condenser backpressure of 8.5 kPa. Back in operation, the thermal ability of the thermal accumulator and calefaction alteration adjustment alcove 99%—which agency the 1,430 MWh accumulator adjustment can run the agent at abounding achievement for 12 hours.
The Hami project, which was congenital in almost two years, is China’s sixth all-embracing bartering solar thermal ability project, according to the China Solar Thermal Alliance, and it brings the country’s absolute CSP accommodation to 350 MW. However, development of its avant-garde heliostat began abundant earlier.
According to a contempo cardboard authored by experts complex in the Hami project, the architecture abstraction took appearance back German structural engineering and consulting close Schlaich Bergermann Partner (sbp) set out to abode an accretion absorption in solar belfry technology in 2010. The close partnered with South Africa’s SASOL Technology to added advance its design, and the ally eventually acclimatized on calling it “Stellio,” a name that refers to a sun-loving agama lizard.
2. The Stellio heliostat developed by German close sbp sonne in accord with ally Ingemetal and Masermic appearance a new arbor arrangement. It allows the use of cost-efficient beeline actuators for both axes, accouterment a cost-effective pentagonal structure. Courtesy: sbp sonne gmbh
When SASOL withdrew from renewables to focus on its chemicals business, sbp abutting armament with Spanish CSP experts Ingemetal Energias and Masermic. The companies congenital the aboriginal Stellio ancestor (Figure 2) at the Plataforma Solar de Almería in Spain in 2014, accouterment it with sensors. That project, sbp said, accepted and accustomed for analysis of Stellio’s “outstanding optical and tracking performance.” At atomic four added prototypes were additionally tested, anniversary architecture on acquaint learned.
However, the consortium’s antecedent efforts to body a first-of-its-kind bulb at Redstone in South Africa’s Northern Cape Region collapsed, so it collaborated with Dongfang Boiler Group (DBC), and eventually won a breakable in 2016 to body a activity at the Hami solar field. As sbp notes, Stellio was abnormally adorable alike then; it won the SolarPACES Technology Addition Accolade 2015 and the CSP PLAZA Technology Addition Accolade 2017.
Its acceptable aspect is its pentagonal design, which abundantly reduces the attenuate but advancing cadence from wind load. The architecture about comprises 10 axle accoutrements and a axial hub, which allows for “a added akin acerbity administration compared to ellipsoidal structures and after-effects in a actual able structural system, [that is], it provides low deformations and appropriately aerial optical achievement at low specific weight. Its roundish appearance reduces concealment and blocking and allows for a bunched acreage layout,” the close explained.
However, the architecture is additionally partly acquired from well-proven emblematic canal technology. “The axle arm [is] anchored from alveolate box sections—easy to assemble and with optimum acerbity per weight.” It additionally appearance bristles rings of purlins that backpack the mirrors; the purlins are fabricated from a cost-effective area metal. The hub and the genitalia of the kinematic adjustment are anchored from plates.
“The capital advantage of the Stellio kinematic adjustment with two absorbed axes is that cost-efficient beeline actuators can be acclimated for both axes and that tracking errors due to drive backfire are alone for [most] heliostat orientations,” sbp added.
The accomplished anatomy is again hot dip galvanized to ensure abiding bane protection. Finally, it uses 10 mirrors (made from 4-millimeter-thick float glass) as able-bodied as a axial mirror—which altogether anatomy a 48.5-square-meter absorption surface. The Hami solar acreage angry out to be alluringly ill-fitted to the Stellio architecture because it appearance a “slight all-embracing slope” that lends able-bodied to a staggered acreage configuration. The acreage surrounding the 200-meter-high solar belfry can host 14,500 heliostats. So far, “Thousands of heliostats accept been installed and the acreage allotment is beneath way. The receiver has been army on top of the tower,” Fabian Gross, an sbp architect and physicist, told POWER on March 2.
According to SolarPACES, the International Energy Agency’s CSP analysis arm, how bound the abstraction progressed from “lab to commercial” is remarkable. “The better obstacle to advancing abeyant cost-cutting improvements in atypical CSP technologies is accepting them deployed in bartering projects. Risks are aerial back every CSP bulb charge be congenital at utility-scale and charge accomplish money appropriate away,” it noted. However, the activity additionally benefited abundantly from actuality congenital in China, which as Solar PACES noted, “takes a altered access to new technologies that favors giving atypical designs a tryout. Its aboriginal CSP projects are affirmation projects, yet they are actuality congenital at abounding admeasurement to acquiesce real-life engineering issues to appearance up so they can be bound at bartering scale.”
The 50-MW Yumen activity in China, for example, is testing a “beam-down” bowl CSP, a technology that promises to cut CSP ability costs by 30%. “If axle bottomward works, it could abundantly abridge solar hydrogen thermochemistry, because a focal point on the arena is accessory to addition addition to cut renewable hydrogen costs by accumulation the solar receiver/reactor with thermal accumulator at arena level, area the thermochemistry for agreeable baptize is best agitated out,” the alignment noted. Addition appearance of the Yumen activity is additionally testing a silicon-based calefaction alteration aqueous (HTF) for canal CSP in a activity spearheaded by Chinese close Royal Tech CSP, addition SolarPACES accolade winner. That’s notable because “Silicon can get abundant hotter than today’s 400C accepted calefaction alteration aqueous for canal CSP, so this Si-HTF abundantly improves the ability of emblematic canal CSP,” SolarPACES said.
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